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Newcastle College,Newcastle,England

History

Newcastle, known at the time as "Pons Aelius" was founded by the Roman Emperor Hadrian, whose Wall is still visible in parts of Newcastle,
particularly along the West Road. The course of the "Roman Wall" can also be traced eastwards to Wallsend (Segedunum).
After the Roman withdrawal from Britain, Newcastle became part of the powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria and was known throughout this
period as Monkchester. After a series of conflicts with the Danes and the devastation north of the River Tyne inflicted by Odo after the 1080
rebellion against the Normans, Monkchester was all but destroyed. Because of its strategic position, Robert Curthose, son of the Conqueror,
erected a wooden castle there in 1080 and the town was henceforth known as Novum Castellum or Newcastle.

Throughout the Middle Ages, Newcastle was England's northern fortress, in the Border war against Scotland. The Scots king William the Lion was
imprisoned in Newcastle in 1174, and Edward I brought the Stone of Scone and William Wallace south through the town. Newcastle was successfully
defended against the Scots three times during the 14th century and around this time became a county corporate.
King Charles bestowed upon Newcastle the East of England coal trading rights. This monopoly helped Newcastle prosper, but it had its impact on
the growth of near-neighbours Sunderland, causing a Tyne-Wear rivalry that still exists. During the English Civil War, Newcastle supported the
king and in 1644 was stormed ('with roaring drummes') by Cromwell's Scots allies, based in pro-Parliament Sunderland. The grateful King bestowed
the motto "Fortiter Defendit Triumphans" ("Triumphing by a brave defence") upon the town. Ironically, Charles was imprisoned in Newcastle by the
Scots in 1646-7.
In the 18th century, Newcastle was the country's largest print centre after London, Oxford and Cambridge, and the Literary and Philosophical
Society of 1793, with its erudite debates and large stock of books in several languages predated the London Library by half a century.
Newcastle also became the greatest glass producer in the world. Newcastle's development as a major city, however, owed most to its central
role in the export of coal.  The phrase taking coals to Newcastle was first recorded in 1538. In the nineteenth century, shipbuilding and heavy
engineering were central to the city's prosperity; and the city was a powerhouse of the Industrial Revolution. Innovation in Newcastle and
surrounding areas included the development of Safety lamps, Stephenson's Rocket, Lord Armstrong's artillery, Joseph Swan's electric light bulbs,
and Charles Parsons' invention of the steam turbine, which led to the revolution of marine propulsion and the production of cheap electricity.
 
Cost of livingNewcastle benefits from a low cost of living - cheaper than the south of England. One of the many benefits of living in Newcastle is the low cost
of student accommodation and food, leisure facilities and nightlife. It is no suprise that many international students stay in Newcastle!




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